Construct the governance structure to reduce the risk of international trade operation
Scientific governance structure is an international trade enterprise operational risk is an important guarantee to achieve "controlled", so enterprises should carefully combing the current governance structure, the implementation of process reengineering, governance structure to reduce the operation risk of international trade.
1 organizational structure
Scientific organization structure mainly includes the management structure, management system and operation mechanism, etc., through the design and operation of this organization structure can reduce the risk of international trade operation. The enterprise shall establish and improve the leadership of the board of directors of the international trade development strategy and management under the leadership of the market analysis and forecasting, information construction and transfer, credit (risk) management, supply chain risk internal control, evaluation and incentive, efficiency supervision, enterprise culture and enterprise culture construction sub system.
Large and medium-sized enterprises should be based on "mutual checks and balances" and "incompatible" principle, design organizations and responsibilities. For example, in the import and export trade institutions shall be set up at least (market information), and credit (risk) department management department, foreign trade department, comprehensive department; large enterprise groups should be set at least the finance department in the import and export agency.
The market (information), the main responsibility for: (1) to the credit management department (risk) of import and export business of warning or alert, the implementation of risk control and information feedback in real-time; dynamic analysis on all kinds of import and export trade market environment, the formation of analysis and forecast report. Will adjust the import and export trade development strategy and management strategy for the adjustment of import and export trade board, provide a reference for the implementation of foreign trade; import and export trade operations, material value, product value, provide a reference for the credit (risk); the implementation of the whole process of import and export management department (before, during and after the event (credit risk) control) to provide reference information; provide "exchange rate" reference for the finance department to implement monetary value. (2) according to the market and the order situation, the preparation and adjustment of the export trade plan; according to the production plan, the preparation of import trade and supply plan. (3) according to the exchange rate forecast, the formulation of monetary hedging program (through the foreign exchange futures, or forward foreign exchange, or foreign exchange swaps); according to the market forecast, formulation of raw materials and products (hedging program through product futures or futures trading related products); computer information management of the whole process of import and export trade. The price, cost and profit of the whole supply chain tracking, to provide real-time management for import and export operation effect data.
(credit risk) management department main responsibilities: (1) on the import and export business related to the organizational structure, human resources, business operations, supply chain management, enterprise culture construction and other aspects of risk identification, control, supervision, assessment and evaluation, and the information feedback to the enterprise level risk control system. (2) the audit market (information), the import and export trade, import and export trade customer audit qualification audit, verification, import and export trade contract and settlement documents under the contract, review the letter of credit (Fu Hui) terms, Chukuchan sign products. (3) dynamic tracking of the credit status of customers, according to the customer's performance of the credit rating, according to the results of the customer's credit rating to grant different credit settlement conditions". (4) the implementation of the whole process of import and export trade credit (risk) supervision, monitoring, early warning and alarm, recover overdue for more than half a year within the accounts receivable, cooperate with relevant departments in the implementation of more than one year overdue accounts receivable collection and other breach of contract, contract arbitration or legal proceedings. (5) foreign trade, comprehensive, financial and other departments of the foreign exchange business, the implementation of a full range of monitoring, the implementation of customer satisfaction evaluation, in order to safeguard the credibility of enterprises and other foreign.
The main duties of the foreign trade department are: (1) the credit (risk) Management Branch of the import and export business warning or warning, the implementation of risk control and real-time information feedback. (2) to carry out the import and export trade plan, carry out credit investigation on customers, obtain the written materials and implement the audit. (3) to sign and perform the contract, to provide the credit management branch of the trade contract and the relevant documents, the terms of the credit opened, issued a product library, etc.. (4) less than half of the collection of overdue receivables, with the credit management department to implement the contract, contract arbitration or legal proceedings. (5) the implementation of the higher authorities, the top management of the collective approval of imports of raw materials and export products to maintain the program. (6) according to the results of the dynamic tracking of credit management, the contract to be suspended (or termination) of the existence of a larger problem, the maximum possible to meet the reasonable requirements of customers and strive to enhance their satisfaction.
The main responsibilities of the Department are: (1) the credit (risk) Management Branch of the import and export business warning or warning, the implementation of risk control and real-time information feedback. (2) cooperate with relevant departments of the import and export of goods according to the contract (such as international standards or the goods arrive to national standards or industry standards, or the standards stipulated in the contract) the implementation of acceptance shall not be released without the acceptance of the goods (inbound or outbound). (3) according to the results of the credit management section dynamic tracking, the existence of a larger problem of the contract to be suspended (or termination) raw materials warehousing or product delivery inspection procedures. (4) to examine, evaluate and motivate the economic responsibility system of other departments, and implement the construction management of the sub culture of the system of import and export.
The main responsibilities of the financial department are: (1) the credit (risk) Management Branch of the import and export business warning or warning, the implementation of risk control and real-time information feedback. (2) review under the contract "credit settlement conditions" whether to grant conditions and credit management department is consistent, signing the contract approval, product storehouse, check under the trade settlement documents etc.. (3) according to the contract or payment receipt (check the terms and conditions of the credit, credit or other payment procedures). (4) according to the results of the dynamic credit management department shall suspend on the track, there is a big problem in the contract (or termination) sign procedures, suspend the product (or termination) payment etc.. (5) the implementation of the higher authorities, the highest management approval of the debt and assets (exchange rate movements) hedging program.
2 international trade computer management information system platform
To set up the computer management information system of international trade is a necessary means to improve the operational efficiency of the import and export trade, reduce the human factors, and reduce the risk of information transmission. To the attention of the system must be connected with enterprise network, information transmission and processing should be smooth, do not set up the import and export trade of the computer information management system "islands" in the import and export of internal and enterprise level, import and export business process of accessibility of electronic information, the supervision and the supervision, monitoring and information transmission is symmetric monitoring "". In the Internet business level, through the computer management information system of enterprise level, achieve the supply chain "information symmetry", and realize the management departments and between departments and between import and export business of "information symmetry", thus reducing the risk due to the asymmetry of information and the import and export trade suffered the biggest operation limit.
3 market analysis and forecast
The main purpose of market analysis and Forecast: (1) to consolidate existing markets and develop new markets, expand market share, enhance brand visibility and reputation, to provide decision-making information. (2) for enterprises in the raw materials, materials and equipment import market to seize the low price, in the product market to seize the high price of the product, providing decision-making reference information. (3) to maintain the import of raw materials, product export value, provide decision-making reference information.
And the prediction should adhere to the "five in one" principle: (1) according to the analysis of the market supply and demand changes (effects of attention to macroeconomic policies, such as fiscal, financial and industrial policies may have on the relationship between supply and demand), market analysis and forecast. (2) according to the periodic law of change, the raw material market, product market, technical graphics analysis and forecast. (3) according to the relevant product market or related derivatives market changes, analysis and forecast. (4) pay close attention to the world of large fund market speculation (the fund's short-term speculation tend not to supply and demand for the subject, may take a short subject or a short-term subject of speculation manufacturing to achieve its purpose). (5) analysis of the "pre emergency" (such as anticipation of possible war, riots, strikes, etc.) "emergency" (as has been the war, riots, strikes and other effects) may have in the market. Only five aspects of the analysis, in order to draw a comprehensive analysis of the forecast results; and then based on this result, the development of raw materials import and export value of products or measures to deal with and report.
4 risk identification, control, supervision, assessment and evaluation
The main purpose of this work is to avoid various kinds of risks, including the "five risk", to avoid and reduce the risks caused by the debt increase or impairment of assets, there are five main steps: (1) to obtain all kinds of risk information through various official and non official channels. For example, through the government website or business association website, access to industry (industry) early warning information; early warning information, policy information acquisition of import and export trade in the country through national institutions abroad website; through domestic and foreign financial institutions, access to financial policy changes, changes in the exchange rate may bring the risk of information received and paid by or paid; free information services, access to relevant information on the situation of risk; field trips, visits of emergency, obtain relevant risk information; dynamic tracking and monitoring of the import and export customer contract, contract acquisition process of risk information. (2) the risk information obtained by induction, arrangement and classification, the risk identification, the risk control plan or the risk response measures. (3) to identify the risk, to the relevant departments issued a risk warning or risk warning, and monitor the risk control process until the risk of early warning or risk warning lifted. (4) the monthly, quarterly, annual examination and evaluation of the risk control of each department, and the result is an important indicator of the economic responsibility system. (5) of the business department of the computer management information system, real-time to credit (risk) management, risk management and control to ensure the dynamic transfer, import and export related internal risk control mechanism of symmetric information transmission; risk identification, regularly to the enterprise level control, supervision, examination and evaluation system of transfer control of information, to ensure the enterprise level the symmetry of import and export business control information transmission.
5 enterprise internal supply chain interaction linkage and risk control operation mechanism
The effect of enterprise operation and import, production, quality assurance, export and other links are closely related, the whole supply chain link through a series of important links, directly related to the enterprise operation of the good and bad. In other words, regardless of the import or export links, should be linked with the production and other aspects of the formation of a linkage to form a market oriented organic whole. To establish the control mechanism of supply chain interaction and linkage mechanism, the purpose of risk is the changes in the market is rapidly transferred to the production process, take various measures to avoid or reduce the risk of market price fluctuations, the import and export business involves the operation of supply chain risk and other risks. Enterprises should establish a focus on interaction from the supply chain and the linkage mechanism, internal market simulation of external market operation, supply chain, supply chain activities supervision, evaluation, assessment and evaluation, supply chain operation mechanism of continuous improvement and other aspects, construction supply chain operation mechanism.
6 international trade system sub culture construction system
From the perspective of corporate culture, corporate culture is a sub - (sub -) culture, which is rooted in the social culture. And corporate culture is a sub culture of social culture, every subordinate enterprise also has its own root in the corporate culture, but also has its own cultural differences of enterprise culture. Also, because of the professional management system (production management, quality management, technology innovation management, security management, import and export management, test management, supply chain management system) management concept and mode of operation of the more refined, leading to the professional management system sub professional management system also has its own cultural characteristics. The effectiveness of this stage of construction activities, directly related to the construction of enterprise culture and system construction, production and operation mechanism to complement each other, and promote each other. Through the construction of the advanced sub culture system, it exerts a subtle influence on the operation of the employees, and the maximum possible to mobilize the initiative of the employees.
7 assessment, supervision and evaluation
Supervision, examination and evaluation system of enterprise management of import and export trade, from four aspects: (1) the import and export agency under the credit management department (risk), regular (monthly) supervision, examination and evaluation of other business department. (2) enterprises in charge of the higher authorities and leaders in charge of the management system, regular (at least once every quarter) on the import and export management institutions supervision, assessment and evaluation. (3) the effectiveness of the enterprises in accordance with the effectiveness of the monitoring system to monitor the system regularly (at least once a year) on the import and export management system or supply chain system for supervision, assessment and evaluation. (4) the board of directors of the financial audit department, regularly (at least once every three years) to conduct supervision, assessment and evaluation. These four aspects of supervision, assessment and evaluation can be formed to ensure the effective operation of the import and export trade management system and the continuous improvement of the three-dimensional monitoring, assessment and evaluation mechanism.